Editorial Policies & Publication Ethics

Following policies describe guidelines for the publication of articles in Medhawi's journals. We expect the firmest ethical standards from the authors, reviewers and editors while conducting research, submitting papers and the peer-review process.


An author is an individual who has significantly contributed towards the development of a manuscript. The ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) recommends that authorship should be based on the following four criteria:

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify, which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.


Individuals who contributed to the development of a manuscript, but do not qualify as an author, should be acknowledged. The institutions that have granted support in terms of funding and/or other resources should also be acknowledged.

Changes in authorship

Written approval from all the authors is required, that they consent with the suggested changes in authorship of submitted or published articles. Such confirmation should be received by e-mail of the individual author. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors confirm that they agree to the changes. If there is disagreement among the authors concerning authorship and a satisfactory agreement cannot be reached, the authors should approach the concerned institution(s) for a resolution. It is not the Journal's responsibility to resolve authorship disputes.

Submission of Manuscript

Authors must read the “Instruction for Authors” properly given on the journal’s page before submitting the article. Manuscript should be prepared according to the pattern and specifications of the journal’s guidelines.

Author's name given in the manuscript should qualify the requirements for the authorship specified above. Where possible, the contribution of each of the authors may be specified.

All authors should approve the final version of the manuscript prior to submission. All authors are to be notified regarding submission of the manuscript by the Manuscript tracking system through the e-mail.

Contact information of all the authors should be given on the manuscript. Surname/Other names, affiliation, emails, and phone/fax numbers. Declaration of Conflicts of Interest should be stated in the manuscript. Submission should be done online through Medhawi’s Manuscript Processing System (MPS).

Conflict of Interest

A keystone of science is that it should be objective and unbiased. Imagine a researcher could gain financially or career-wise if he or she gets a particular result from a study. Although this by itself is acceptable, some people might doubt whether such considerations had compromised the study design, conduct, or publication of the study findings, especially if the researcher had not disclosed the potential gain. This situation is termed “Conflicts of interest” (COI).

A conflict of interest arises whenever there is any potential bias that could affect a researcher’s work. Conflicts of interest can include both financial and non-financial gains.

Authors should disclose all financial/relevant interest that may have influenced the development of the manuscript.

Reviewers should disclose any conflict of interest and if necessary, decline the review of any manuscript they perceive to have a conflict of interest. Editors should also decline from considering any manuscript that may have the conflict of interest. Such manuscripts will be re-assigned to other editors.

Further readings on conflict of interest (Links)

COPE - flowcharts on Conflict of Interest

ICMJE - Conflicts of Interest

STM – International Ethical Principles for Scholarly Publication

WAME - Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals


A submitted manuscript is a confidential material. Medhawi shall not disclose submitted manuscript to anyone except individuals who join the processing and preparation of the manuscript for publication (if accepted). These individuals include editorial staff, corresponding authors, reviewers, reviewers, and editors.  However, in suspected cases of misconduct, a manuscript may be revealed to members of ethical committee(s) and institutions/organizations that may ask it for the resolution of the misconduct.

 Further reading

ICMJE - Responsibilities in the Submission and Peer-Review Process

STM - International Ethical Principles for Scholarly Publication


Medhawi takes seriously all charges of potential misconduct. In cases of suspected (research or publication) misconduct, it may be necessary for the Editor to contact and share manuscripts with third parties, i.e. the institution(s)/Organisation(s) and ethical committee(s).

All research involving humans (including human data and human material) and animals must have been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework. If there is suspicion that research has not taken place within an appropriate ethical framework, the Editor may reject a manuscript and may inform third parties, i.e. the institution(s)/organisation(s) and ethical committee(s) associated with the author.

In cases of proven research misconduct involving published articles, or where the scientific integrity of the article is significantly undermined, articles may be processed for be retraction.

Ethics committee approval

All articles dealing with original human or animal data must include a statement on ethics approval in Method section of the manuscript. This statement must contain the following information: the name and address of the concerned ethics committee, the protocol number that was attributed by the ethics committee and the date of approval by the ethics committee.

In addition and as stated above, for studies conducted on human participants, author must state clearly that he has obtained written informed consent from the study participants; please also look at the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki. Similarly, for experiments involving animal author must state the care of animal and licensing guidelines under which the study was performed and report these in accordance with the ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) statement. If ethics clearance was not necessary, or if there was any deviation from these standard ethical requests, please state why it was not required. Please note that the editors may ask you to provide evidence of ethical approval. If you have approval from a National Drug Agency (or similar), please state this and provide details, this can be particularly useful when discussing the use of unlicensed drugs.

Correction and retraction of articles

Corrections may be made to a published article with the authorization of the editor of the journal. Editors will decide the extent of the corrections. Minor corrections are made directly to the original article. However, in cases of major corrections, the original article will remain unchanged, while the corrected version will also be published. Both the original and corrected version will be linked to each other. A statement indicating the reason for the major change to the article will also be published.

If ethical misconduct (e.g. misrepresentation/falsification of data, pervasive errors, plagiarism, multiple submissions, etc.) is determined to have occurred in a manuscript published in the journal, Medhawi reserves the right to issue a public retraction of the manuscript in question. The retraction will come in the form of a note published in the journal. The article’s citation will be labeled as “Retracted” in all databases and the electronic version of the manuscript file will be clearly marked as “Retracted.”


As described by the Merriam-Webster dictionary, to plagiarize is “to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own,” “use (another’s production) without crediting the source,” or to “present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source” (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarize Accessed November 07, 2017).

And as per the Oxford dictionary, plagiarism is ‘The practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.” (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/plagiarism, accessed on November 08.2017)

We consider other forms of plagiarism to include “self-plagiarism”—instances in which an author borrows from his or her own previously published work without the proper citation. It is also unacceptable to submit manuscripts to Medhawi that has previously been published anywhere in any language. It is the authors’ responsibility to inform or notify the Editorial office upon submission if there is any doubt, whether a manuscript may violate any of these terms. Submitted manuscripts should be the original works of the author(s).

Duplicate Submission

"Duplicate publication is publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published, without clear, visible reference to the previous publication"

ICMJE Overlapping Publications

It is unethical for authors to submit a manuscript to more than one journal at the same time. This includes the submission of manuscripts derived from the same data in such a manner that there are no substantial differences between the manuscripts. Duplicate submission also includes the submission of the same/similar manuscript in different languages to different journals. If authors have used their own previously published work, or work that is currently under review, as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they are required to cite the previous work and indicate how their submitted manuscript offers novel contributions beyond those of the previous work.

Citations manipulation

Authors should use only citations that are relevant to their manuscripts.  Addition of references which are not relevant to the work is vigorously discouraged.

Irrelevant self-citation to increase one’s citation is unethical.

Unneeded citation of articles for the sole purpose of “increasing” the articles’ citation is unethical.

Unneeded citation of articles from a particular journal to “increase” the journal's citation is unethical.

Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author’s work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will incur citation manipulation penalty.

Fabrication and falsification of data

Fabrication, manipulation or falsification of data is a violation of publication ethics.

Submitted manuscripts that are found to have either fabricated or falsified experimental results, including the manipulation of images, will incur data fabrication and falsification penalty.

Redundant publications

Redundant publications involve the inappropriate division of study outcomes into several articles.

If there are documented violations of any of the above-mentioned  policies in any journal, regardless of whether or not the violations occurred in a journal published by Medhawi, the following penalty will be applied:

  • Immediate rejection of the infringing manuscript.
  • Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by Medhawi by any of the authors of the infringing manuscript.
  • Prohibition against all the authors for any new submissions to any journal published by Medhawi, either individually or in combination with other authors of the infringing manuscript, as well as in combination with any other authors. This prohibition will be imposed for a minimum of 12 months.
  • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal published by Medhawi.

In cases where the violations of the above policies are found to be particularly dreadful, we reserve the right to force upon the additional penalties beyond those described above.

We respect your views and submissions

Take a flight to new heights.

Important Links